You do not have to spend several thousand dollars to scan an object into a 3D model. Today, you can use your mobile camera, or any other camera, to do that. Read on to learn how to 3D scan with your phone.
Photogrammetry is a method of taking pictures of an object that is scanned from all sides and then converting it into a 3D object using special software. This can be an easy and affordable way to 3D scan an object.
If you want to go into the world of 3D scanning but are not ready to pay large sums of money for a 3D scanner, this do-it-yourself guide is for you. We’ve listed the most popular DIY 3D scanners. But before that, let’s take a more in-depth look at software for photogrammetry and 3D scanning.
Photogrammetry is the process of estimating 3D coordinates from multiple images of the same object. This is by far the cheapest gateway to 3D scanning.
While some professional 3D scanners can easily cost hundreds of thousands of dollar, you may be able to use cameras hanging in balloons (or kites) to achieve professional-quality results for 1% of that cost.
Using a smartphone camera also does the job. Today’s smartphone cameras are good enough to achieve a very fine print of an entire project. Simply set the camera to manual exposure, hold the camera (or smartphone) in your hand and snap photos around your selected target, from as many angles as you can.
Make sure that there is a good level of overlap in the field of view between the different images (70-80%). Also, try to keep a constant distance from your object and keep it in the center of the frame. You can start by taking 50 photo. However, the more photos you take, the more accurate your final model is likely to be.
Photogrammetry relies heavily on the quality of the software used to correlate all images and extract the appropriate set of coordinates that define your object. Compared to laser-based systems, the role of the software in editing, cleaning, healing, inspecting and reproducing your scans is even more important.
You can use different software on the market to reproduce and edit information derived from a 3D scan. 3D scanning software can be quite expensive, and professional hardware manufacturers often provide their own software solution to take the job.
Still, if you have an eye on photogrammetry, you can use a combination of different freely available software. Some that we recommend are ColMap or VisualSFM in combination with CMVS-PMVS.
These can be further processed with open source software such as MeshLab, Blender or Cloud Compare for correct rendering and editing of the captured information.
If you are looking for an all-in-one package directly from your smartphone or tablet, check out TRNIO (iOS), which uses a cloud-based computer system, or SCANN3D (Android), which works locally. (You may want one advanced device for the other.)
For computer-based processing, consider Agisoft Photoscan or Reality Capture. There is also 3DF Zephyr, which offers a free version that allows you to process up to 50 images. Autodesk also offers the reality software ReCap for both computers and mobile systems. The software can be used for photogrammetry of laser-based scans.
This is one of the simplest 3D scanner projects you can build. The basic idea is to mount a platform on which you dock a smartphone. All you need is a plate that rotates freely around its vertical axis.
To work, you need to connect the phone’s headset. The volume knob must be installed in place under the crank. It fires the camera remotely and takes 55 photos for each full rotation of the object being scanned.
The numbers say a lot about this 3D scanner turntable. The design, made by Daveyclk, has been downloaded more than 170,000 times from Thingiverse. You are free to download all the files needed for 3D printing of this turntable.
Since no motors or electronics are used in this design, you do not need any kind of drivers (or connection to your computer). But to get a lot of images converted to a 3D object, you need photogrammetry software. The designer suggests using 3DF Zephyr for this task.
Sometimes, you may want a digital 3D representation of a physical object. Maybe you want to make a replacement part for a broken tool or design a modern vase inspired by the organic shape of a family’s legacy. You can buy a 3D scanner for the job. However, why invest in new equipment when all you need is a standard 2D camera, like the one you probably have in your pocket?
Creating a 3D scanner camera is actually easy. The key is angles and many of them. The process is simple: Download an app to your smartphone, snap many images of the same object from multiple angles and feed them to some special software to produce a 3D design.
Of course, there are minor details to consider in practice to optimize the scan, but the methodology is quite simple.
There are many devices on the market that work with a smartphone or tablet to produce a 3D scan. However, in this article, we will focus on using a smartphone to create a 3D scanner camera.
The 3D scanning process starts before any pictures are taken. Optimizing the physical environment where the scan will be done goes a long way towards producing a cleaner model.
Just as it is in digital photography, it is easier to get the physical photography conditions (or in this case, scanning) as perfect as possible, rather than fixing a lot of problems during post-processing.
What you want in a 3D scanning site are:
- Soft lighting
- Pure background
- Carpet non-reflective surfaces
At this point, you need to decide if you are going to touch your smartphone or desktop software with your 3D scanner camera. Choosing the smartphone path means you will have a more guided and uncomplicated experience. On the other hand, choosing desktop software gives you more flexibility to manipulate photos.
The option you choose will depend on how you need the initial scan and how much you are willing to invest in the process.
No matter what software you choose to use, the process of taking photos and using the 3D scanner camera is the same. The process involves taking overlapping images of the object from many different angles. A common way to do this is by walking around the object as the ‘scan’ progresses, thus moving the camera and capturing different angles on the object to combine to a 3D model.
It is worth noting that you should never move the item during the scanning process. Just move yourself or the camera around it.
Do not be afraid to repeat the pictures, especially those that require awkward angles. It is much easier to point at a camera than to rebuild a missing part of a 3D model.
After you have taken all the photographs, you need tp compile them into a 3D model in the computer.
There are various programs to do this automatically. Regardless of the program, the end product is the same, a 3D model of what the pictures show.
After the model is created in the program, you may have to do some little refinement to get it perfect according to your own wishes.
In this guide, we have gone through how to 3D scan with the Photogrammetry method, by taking pictures with a camera to compile the images into a 3D model.
This can be done with basically any digital camera. Mobile cameras nowadays are good, and are well suited for the task.
The process of taking the pictures can also be facilitated with, for example, the 3D printed tripod from Thingiverse for about $30.
It is a fun “do-it-yourself” task to 3D scan something with a camera, and the result will be good if you are good at it. The more you practice, the better you get at it.
You could say that the trick is to take the pictures correctly.
And that is how to 3D scan with your phone.
Hope you enjoyed this guide.