Binder Jetting 3D Printing Technology

What is binder jetting 3D printing technology? How does it work and what can it be used for? Read our guide to find out.

In this article, we’ll talk about binder jetting 3D printing technology and process, i.e., binder injection. We’ll provide a description of the technology, how it works, possibilities, applications. examples of printed parts, and some of the top binder jetting 3D printers.

Let’s get started.

What is Binder Jetting Technology?

binder jet printing process

Binder Jetting (BJ) is a 3D printing technology and process that works with various types of materials. Examples of such materials are ceramics, metals and polymers.

BJ technology was developed at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in 1993 and then acquired by the American company Z Corporation, and later by 3D Systems. The technology is widely used in manufacturing industry in development and production.

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As the name suggests, Binder Jetting (binder – a binder, jetting – injection, inkjet printing) involves the application of a liquid binder, just the way that ink is applied to paper in an inkjet printer.

So, how does it actually work? Well, let’s break it down.

In Binder Jet 3D Printing, the process begins by spreading a thin layer of powdered material. This material can be anything from metals, ceramics, or even composites. Once the layer of powder is spread out, a specialized printing head moves across the surface, strategically depositing a binding agent onto the powdered material.

The binding agent plays a crucial role in the process. It acts as a glue, fusing the powder particles together to form a solid structure. This is what differentiates Binder Jet 3D Printing from other methods that use heat or lasers to melt the material.

This layer-by-layer process continues, with each new layer of powder being spread and bonded together until the desired object is fully formed. Using binder jetting technology, you can print with different materials, including plaster, metals, ceramics, sand, polymers, among others.

Unlike most 3D printing technologies, binder jetting allows you to create full-color models by adding dye to the binder. You can apply the dye not only to the outer layer, but also to any depth. As a result, you can make patterns that are extremely resistant to any influences.

After printing using BJ technology, the resulting products have to be post-processed. This process varies depending on the printing materials used.

Advantages of Binder Jet 3D Printing

Now that we know what Binder Jet 3D Printing is, let’s take a closer look at the advantages and benefits it offers. This technology brings a host of advantages that make it a game-changer in the world of manufacturing.

  • Cheaper

First and foremost, Binder Jet 3D Printing offers significant cost and time savings. The ability to produce multiple objects simultaneously, combined with the speed of the process, reduces production time and labor costs compared to traditional manufacturing methods.”

  • Scalable

The 3D printing method is also highly scalable. Whether you need a single prototype or a large batch of identical parts, this technology can handle it with ease. This scalability opens up new possibilities for mass production and rapid manufacturing.”

  • Versatile in Materials

Another notable advantage of Binder Jet 3D Printing is its versatility when it comes to material selection. The technology can work with a wide range of materials, including metals, ceramics, and composites. This flexibility allows for the creation of objects with unique properties and characteristics.”

  • Make Complex Designs

Complex geometries and intricate designs can be easily made with Binder Jet 3D Printing. The layer-by-layer deposition process allows for the creation of intricate details, intricate internal structures, and organic shapes that would be difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional manufacturing methods.”

  • Customization

One of the remarkable benefits of Binder Jet 3D Printing is its potential for customization. The technology enables the production of personalized objects, tailored to individual needs and preferences. Whether it’s customized medical implants or consumer goods, the possibilities for personalized manufacturing are truly exciting.”

  • Promotes Sustainability

Lastly, Binder Jet 3D Printing promotes sustainability and reduces waste. The process uses only the necessary amount of powder material. This minimizes material wastage compared to subtractive manufacturing methods. Moreover, the use of recyclable powders and the potential for post-processing powder recovery contribute to a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process.”

With these advantages and benefits, Binder Jet 3D Printing is revolutionizing the way we approach manufacturing. From increased efficiency and cost savings to design freedom and sustainability, this technology is shaping the future of production.

The Binder Jet 3D Printing Process

The Binder Jet 3D Printing process consists of three main stages, that is, pre-processing, printing, and post-processing. Each stage plays a crucial role in transforming loose powder materials into solid, functional objects.

  1. Pre-processing Stage

The pre-processing stage begins with preparing the powder. High-quality powders are essential for successful Binder Jet 3D Printing. Powders with specific properties, such as particle size and distribution, are selected and prepared to ensure optimal printing results.

Next, the build bed is prepared. The build bed is where the printing process takes place. A thin layer of powder material is evenly spread across the build bed using a roller or similar mechanism. For accurate printing, it’s crucial to achieve precise control and leveling.

  1. Printing Stage

Once the build bed is prepared, it’s time for the printing stage to begin. The first step in this stage is the application of the binder. A specialized printing head moves across the build bed, depositing the binder onto the powdered material. The binder acts as a bonding agent that fuses the powder particles together.

With the binder applied, the layer-by-layer build process begins.

The build bed moves down by a precise amount, and a new layer of powder is spread across the previously printed layer. The printing head then applies the binder to bond the new layer to the previous one. This layering process continues until the entire object is formed, with each layer binding to the previous one, thus gradually creating a solid 3D printed object.

  1. Post-processing Stage

Ater the object is fully printed, it enters the post-processing stage, starting with debinding.

Excess binder that is not essential for the structural integrity of the printed object is removed. This can be done through methods like heat or solvent treatment. With the excess binder removed, we now remain with the 3D printed object.

The final step in the post-processing stage is sintering.

Sintering involves subjecting the printed object to high temperatures. This process helps to further bond the powder particles to increase the density and strength of the object. Once the sintering process is complete, we have a fully functional, solid 3D printed object ready for use.

Metal 3D Printing Using Binder Jetting Technology

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Metal 3D printing using binder jetting technology involves using metal powders of different compositions and a polymer binder. Through the technology, you can print parts with metal that cannot be created using traditional production methods. For instance, you can create the internal structures of a part. The structure can be of any shape or complexity.

Metal binder jetting technology makes it possible to print with a variety of metals and non-metallic materials. For instance, you can print with stainless steel, copper, Inconel, tungsten carbide, titanium, ceramics and various composites.

After printing, the parts must be treated to get the strength characteristics of an all-metal product. The common treatment process used is known as binder burning and/or sintering. In this process, the printed parts are placed in an oven and kept at specified temperature conditions.

Sintering is carried out at a temperature of 97% of the melting point of the print material. During sintering, the parts are subject to shrinkage. This issue is usually taken into account when modeling the part.

In some cases, sintering is not performed. Instead, the binder is burned out. In such a case, the model retains its dimensions and loses up to 60% of its density. The resulting voids have to be filled with bronze.

Sand 3D Printing Using Binder Jetting Technology

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Binder jetting allows you to print injection molds with sand for casting of metals, ceramics and mixed composite materials. The technology can be used to print injection molds for all kinds of products, including decorative ones. As a result, you can get full-color 3D printed models from the injection molds.

For color printing, a binder jetting 3D printer uses two printheads. One of the heads applies the binder while the other applies the ink. To increase mechanical strength, the model is sintered.

Binder jetting technology can be used to 3D print various materials, including natural sand and artificial silica. The production of sand injection molds using BJ technology allows you to obtain highly accurate models fast and at a low cost.

Binder Jetting 3D Printing Materials

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The number of materials that can be used for Binder Jetting 3D printing has increased over time. New types of raw materials are being developed. However, there are several basic powders that are most often used. These are:

Silica Sand

This material is good for 3D printing models that need to be highly resistant to high temperatures. Silica sand can achieve amazing results when casting metals into printed sand molds.

Sandstone or Plaster

3D models made of sandstone or plaster are fragile. Therefore, the materials should not be used f0r parts that have to undergo mechanical stress. Rather, they are best for printing decorative or demonstration models that will allow you to see the possibilities of full-color printing.

Other items that you can print with sandstone or plaster include visual aids for teaching, interior decor items, duplicates of works of art, and exhibits for museums.

Stainless Steel

Metal parts usually shrink during baking. As a result, their dimensions significantly change. However, if shrinkage is taken into account when designing a model, printed stainless steel parts can be applied in any area. The parts can replacing cast parts or those made with other traditional technologies.

3D printed and post-processed stainless steel models have high strength and excellent mechanical properties. Moreover, they are resistant to corrosion.

Steel products that are 3D printed without subsequent sintering or infused with bronze after the binder has burned out also have high strength. However, the strength is somewhat lower than that of all-steel metals. Moreover, the 3D printed stainless steel parts retain up to 10% porosity.

3D printed stainless steel can be used in a wide range of industries. These units stand out for their highly accurate and predictable sizes.

Wolfram Carbide

You can use Binder Jetting technology to 3D print with tungsten carbide. After post-processing the 3D printed items, they become hard.


Inconel Binder Jetting 3D printing followed by baking results in parts with excellent mechanical strength, chemical resistance and high temperature resistance.

Applications of Binder Jet 3D Printing

Now that we have explored the process of Binder Jet 3D Printing, let’s discover the wide range of applications this technology has to offer. From industrial manufacturing to architecture and consumer goods, the possibilities are truly remarkable.

  1. Industrial Manufacturing

Binder Jet 3D Printing has transformed the manufacturing landscape by enabling the production of complex industrial parts and components. The ability to create intricate geometries and internal structures, coupled with the speed and scalability of Binder Jet 3D Printing, allows for faster prototyping, reduced lead times, and enhanced efficiency in the production of industrial goods.

Industries such as automotive, aerospace, and medical have benefited greatly from this technology, as it offers cost-effective solutions and the flexibility to design and produce parts with exceptional precision.”

  1. Architecture and Construction

Binder Jet 3D Printing is pushing the boundaries of architectural design and construction. The ability to 3D print large-scale structures and architectural elements with intricate details and unique geometries opens up new possibilities for architects and designers.

The technology allows for the creation of customized, one-of-a-kind architectural designs, while also reducing construction waste and increasing construction efficiency.”

  1. Consumer Goods and Design

Binder Jet 3D Printing is revolutionizing the way consumer goods are designed and manufactured. From jewelry and fashion accessories to household items and consumer electronics, the technology enables the production of highly customized and personalized products.”

With this technology, designers and artists can explore intricate and artistic creations that were previously challenging to achieve. The 3D printing method brings their creative visions to life with exceptional detail and complexity. Moreover, Binder Jet 3D Printing facilitates on-demand manufacturing. This means you can produce small-batch and customized products without the need for expensive molds or tooling.

These are just a few examples of the diverse applications of Binder Jet 3D Printing. The technology continues to evolve, opening up new possibilities in fields such as medicine, electronics, and beyond. And as it gains further traction, we can expect to see even more groundbreaking innovations and advancements in the years to come.

Pros and Cons of Binder Jetting

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Let’s summarize the pros and cons of 3D printing using Binder Jetting technology.

Pros of Binder Jetting

  • Low cost compared to other metal 3D printing processes such as DMLS, SLM or Material Jetting.
  • The ability to print full-color prototypes
  • Rich printing possibilities for internal structures
  • No deformation when printing
  • High productivity for small to medium batch production

Cons of Binder Jetting

  • High porosity compared to DMLS or SLM models. This results in models with lower mechanical strength.
  • Before heat treatment, the 3D printed part is fragile
  • The need to factor in the difference in size when printed models will shrink when baked.
  • A limited number of materials for use. There is a limited number of materials that can be used for binder jetting 3D printing compared to other 3D printing processes.

Best Binder Jetting 3D Printers

Below are some of the best binder jetting 3D printers:

1. FHZL PCM1800 3D Printer

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The FHZL PCM1800 3D Binder Jetting sand printer allows you to produce injection molds up to 1800x1000x700mm fast. This eliminates the need for a physical template. The printer can use various raw materials for casting, including steel, non-ferrous metals, aluminum and alloys.

Learn more about the FHZL PCM1800 .

2. ExOne X1 160Pro 3D Printer

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The ExOne X1 160Pro is the largest Binder Jetting metal 3D printer. The printer features the patented ExOne Triple ACT system, which provides industry-leading density and repeatability of parts. This machine can prints parts measuring up to 800 x 500 x 400 mm, i.e. 160 liters. This is more than 2.5 times the chamber volume of competing brands.

Learn more about the ExOne X1 160Pro 3D Printer .

Prints Samples Made Using Binder Jetting Technology

Below are some sample prints made using Binder Jetting technology process:

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

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Photo: ExOne

As Binder Jet 3D Printing continues to revolutionize the manufacturing industry, let’s explore the future trends and potential limitations of the cutting-edge technology.

  1. Emerging Materials

One of the exciting areas of development in Binder Jet 3D Printing is the exploration of new materials.

Researchers and engineers are constantly pushing the boundaries to expand the range of materials that can be used in Binder Jet 3D Printing. These includes advanced metals, alloys, and composite materials with enhanced properties and functionality.

With the introduction of new materials, we can expect even more diverse applications and improved performance in various industries.

  1. Enhanced Resolution and Finishing

While Binder Jet 3D Printing has made significant strides in terms of resolution and surface finish, there is still room for improvement.

As technology advances, we can anticipate finer detail, smoother surfaces, and improved surface quality in Binder Jet 3D printed objects. This will open up new possibilities for highly detailed and visually stunning creations.”

  1. Integration with Other Technologies

The integration of Binder Jet 3D Printing with other manufacturing processes is another area to watch.”

Combining the technology with techniques like CNC machining or post-printing treatments can further enhance its capabilities and versatility. Such hybrid manufacturing approaches have the potential to create complex, multi-functional objects with optimized performance and efficiency.

However, while Binder Jet 3D Printing holds much promise, it’s important to consider its limitations as well. One of the primary limitations is the size constraint. As of now, Binder Jet 3D Printing is more suitable for producing medium-sized objects rather than extremely large-scale structures.

Another limitation is the need for post-processing. While debinding and sintering are integral to the binder jet process, they can add time and cost to the production workflow.”

Moreover, while Binder Jet 3D Printing can work with a wide range of materials, certain materials with specific characteristics may pose challenges in achieving desired outcomes.

As technology continues to advance, it is expected that these limitations will be addressed, allowing for even broader applications and improved performance. With ongoing research, development, and innovation, Binder Jet 3D Printing is poised to reshape the manufacturing landscape, providing solutions to complex challenges and fueling new possibilities.


Binder jetting is one of the most accurate 3D printing technologies currently available on the market. This is the preferred technology for metal printing or printing large sand molds for casting. Using the technology provides a significant competitive advantage for organizations in mechanical engineering and other industries. areas.

Binder jet 3D printing is a game-changer in the manufacturing industry, offering speed, scalability, material versatility, and the ability to create complex designs. It has found applications in industries such as industrial manufacturing, architecture, and consumer goods.”

As we look ahead, we anticipate exciting developments of the technology. Advancements in materials, enhanced resolution and finishing, and the integration with other technologies will further expand its capabilities and possibilities.”

However, it’s important to acknowledge the limitations of Binder jet 3D printing, notably size constraints and the need for post-processing. These areas present opportunities for future research and innovation.

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