Learn the Different Types of 3D Printing Filament

Learn the Different Types of 3D Printing Filament 1

Polymer filament can rightfully be considered the cornerstone of the 3D printing industry. 
Let’s make a bold assumption – if it hadn’t been for invented plastic in the form of a thread (filament), then 3D printing would never have become “popular”, and it would have remained in granules and powders of industrial production.

Historical background: In the late 1980s, as a result of scientific and technological breakthrough, S. Scott Crump developed Fused Fused Deposition Printing (FDM) technology, which was implemented in production by Stratasys by the end next decade. [one]

 

 

Legal Notice: “The original Fused Deposition Modeling and FDM are trademarks of Stratasys. 3D printing enthusiasts involved with the RepRap project have coined the analogous term “fused filament fabrication” or FFF, to circumvent legal restrictions. The terms FDM and FFF have the same meaning and purpose. “

The modern reader knows that 3D FDM printers are designed to print with thermoplastics called filaments, which are usually distributed in the form of rods, filaments, rolls or spools.

Thermoplastics, in terms of their chemical composition, can be both relatively harmless to health and highly toxic. And the vapors released during printing can contain harmful chemical elements.

The range of “clean”, “ecological” plastics is very wide. One of the most popular materials is polylactide, or “PLA plastic”. This material is made from corn or sugarcane, which makes it non-toxic and environmentally friendly, but makes it relatively short-lived.

In contrast, ABS plastic is very durable and wear-resistant, although it is susceptible to direct sunlight. But when heated, it can emit a certain amount of harmful fumes.

“Today the market of thermoplastics for 3D, in addition to PLA and ABS, is represented by several tens, if not hundreds, of various filaments for any color, taste, smell and purpose. You can print a part from nylon, polycarbonate, polyethylene, carbon and many other types and types of thermoplastics, which are actively developed and widely advertised by modern domestic and global manufacturers of resins and rods for 3D printers. Or use derivatives of more exotic materials, for example, polyvinyl alcohol, better known as PVA, or wax, which is used in the production of “burnout” filaments for, say, the jewelry industry.

 

Terms :

Polymers (from the Greek πολύ “a lot” + μέρος “part”) are substances consisting of “monomer units” connected into long macromolecules by chemical or coordination bonds [2] .

Thermoplastics are polymeric materials that can reversibly transform when heated into a highly elastic or viscous-flow state. The processing of thermoplastics into products is not accompanied by an irreversible chemical reaction. They are recyclable (molded).

Thermoplastic polymers can have a linear or branched structure, be amorphous (polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate) or crystalline (polyethylene, polypropylene). Unlike thermosets, thermoplastics are characterized by the absence of a three-dimensional cross-linked structure and a transition to a fluid state, which makes it possible to thermoform, cast and extrude articles from them.

Some linear polymers are not thermoplastics, since their decomposition temperature is lower than the pour point (cellulose) [3] .

Elastomer – this term refers to polymers with highly elastic properties in the range of use. Any elastic material is called rubber or elastomer that can stretch to dimensions many times its original length (Elastomeric thread), and, which is important, return to its original size when the load is removed. Not all amorphous polymers are elastomers. Some of them are thermoplastics. This depends on its glass transition temperature: elastomers have low glass transition temperatures and thermoplastics have high ones. (This rule only works for amorphous polymers, not crystalline ones.) [4]

 

 

About filament production. The basic principle of production is manufacturing by extrusion (extrusion) [5]. The raw material, usually in granules, is melted and drawn through a forming hole into a calibrated thread with subsequent cooling.

* [5] – Extrusion (from late lat. Extrusio “pushing out”) – a technology for producing products by forcing a viscous melt of material or thick paste through a forming hole.

The range of equipment ranged from desktop homemade products to multifunctional full cycle systems with a deep degree of automation and digital control over the entire production cycle. As a rule, the initial raw material for such systems is a granular polymer substrate.

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A simplified production chain of the industrial process for the production of filament for 3D printing looks like this: the raw material is loaded into a cone-shaped container, from where it is fed into the melt chamber with a small flow using a screw. There, at a certain set temperature, the granules turn into a viscous-flowing substance, which, under the pressure of the newly supplied material, is squeezed out through a system of calibrated nozzles. The thread obtained in this way goes through the process of cooling and additional calibration to the specified diameter dimensions. Its consistency, solidity, and humidity are controlled. Next, the filament is wound on a technological or commercial reel. It, in turn, is subjected to additional controlled drying and then packed in an airtight container.

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All temperature, speed, dimensional and mass parameters are controlled using a large number of specialized sensors connected to a centralized digital control system.

Making a bar at home is somewhat more prosaic, but the principle remains the same. Even plastic bottles from household containers cut into ribbons can be used as raw materials for a home “thread maker”. The prime cost of such products is significantly lower than the factory one, however, the quality corresponds to the price. There are exceptions, though.

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Today plastics for 3D printing are produced in two standard filament diameters – 2.85 mm. and 1.75 mm. The most common filament is 1.75 mm, however, a rod with a diameter of 2.85 mm, due to its increased rigidity, is still in demand by users of 3D printers with an extruder of the “bowden” type. For example, Ultimaker printers use it.

At the dawn of the popular 3D revolution, in a situation of a shortage of ingredients for printing, fishing lines and coils for lawn mowers were also used. However, nowadays, 3D printers have a huge number of proposals for every taste and budget. Let’s try to understand them a little.

 

FILAMENT ON THE SHELVES

 

In order not to get confused in the great variety of plastics produced today – filaments (filaments) for 3D printing, we very conditionally divide them into three “global” categories: basic, auxiliary and decorative. Moreover, decorative, to some extent, can also be correlated with basic ones, but their separate choice is due to the increased requirement for the appearance of the final product.

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– The basic ones are those types of plastics that, in terms of their physicochemical properties, are most suitable for the production of products and parts for industrial or special production. On their basis, specialized variations with various unique properties can be produced. Ranges from extra strong and tough to super soft and flexible.

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In turn, basic plastics can be divided into engineering (industrial) and particular (consumer goods). The former are subject to increased operational requirements, for example, high strength or toughness, elasticity, durability, chemical neutrality or resistance to adverse atmospheric or other environments.

The second is quite reliable to keep its shape, it is easy to print on a wide range of equipment, it is easy to handle with improvised tools and substances, it is easy to paint and be environmentally friendly and safe to use.

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– Auxiliary plastics are designed to print additional elements of printed structures that ensure the reproduction of overhanging parts of the printed model or not at all touching the desktop. Or to create lost wax or soluble forms or products.

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– Decorative plastics contain additional impurities or are completely made from special substances that provide their unique external texture, color or transparent properties.

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And also all filaments are divided into high-temperature and low-temperature . For the former, a special, all-metal thermal barrier of the extruder or its special design is required. For the second, a full-time hot end of any widespread printer is enough.

It is important to remember that fluoroplastic tubing (PTFE) is used in the design of low-temperature extruders, but fluoroplastics are different, and although they all have the lowest dry friction coefficient among polymers, they are nevertheless not direct analogues. So, for example, fluoroplast-4 (Teflon) has a melting point of 270-327 ° C, and fluoroplast-3 is only 210-215 ° C, but fluoroplast-40 melts at 265-275 ° C.

It is theoretically correct to use fluoroplate-4 in composite thermal barriers of hot ends – a crystalline polymer with a crystal melting temperature of 327 ° C and a glass transition temperature of amorphous areas from -100 ° C to -120 ° C, which, even at temperatures above the decomposition temperature (415 ° C) passes into a viscous-flow state, but only loses some properties of sliding and elasticity.

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But for most household 3D printers, the manufacturer does not specify, or may not know himself, what grade of PTFE was used in assembling the hot ends of extruders. Therefore, there are often stories among users about the loss of extrusion due to a failed thermal barrier after printing with filaments with a temperature of 250 ° C and above. Unfortunately, you need to remember this and if in doubt, use an all-metal thermal barrier when working with plastics with a printing temperature above 245-250 ° C.

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Another useful tip . Before starting to experiment with new plastics, it is important for the operator and the owner of the 3D printer to make sure that the real temperature of the hot end is displayed on his display or monitor. The fact is that inexpensive printer models often have a scatter of actual and displayed temperatures up to tens of degrees. This is due to non-calibrated temperature sensors (thermistors) and the discrepancy between their parameters and the parameters of the ADC table. Rarely does anyone undertake to do this complex procedure on their own, although examples of such punctuality are found. Sometimes it is enough to print a test temperature tower to determine the error and take it into account later when setting up other prints.

Let’s move on to describe, as far as possible in a journalistic format, the most famous filaments used today in 3D printing, sorting them by conditional division into groups.

Basic, solid

PLA

Polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable, biocompatible, thermoplastic, aliphatic polyester, the monomer of which is lactic acid. The raw materials for production are annually renewable resources such as corn and sugarcane.

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It can be called a “classic of the genre”, although the “pioneers” of 3D printing for some reason are reluctant to switch from ABS to PLA, because of the force of habit. Those who were lucky enough to start their acquaintance with additive technologies using PLA plastic, note the high usability of this filament. The ease of use and low requirements for printing devices, coupled with the high environmental friendliness and harmlessness of this polymer made from sugar beets and cane, have opened the door to the masses and are widely used not only in everyday printing, but also in prototyping. It is also used for the production of products with a short service life (food packaging, disposable dishes, bags, various containers), as well as in medicine, for the production of surgical threads and pins.

On the market, plastic from leading manufacturers is represented by a large color palette, for example, eSun has more than fifty positions. There are many variations on the basis of this PLA thermoplastic, including decorative ones.

 

PLA + (PLA PRO)

High strength modified PLA. Some manufacturers, for example the same eSun, claim that the strength is increased by 10 times compared to the basic characteristics of the “standard” PLA [6] .

Nozzle – 205-225 ° C. Table – 60-80 ° С (printing without heating is possible)

 

PLA Glass (PLA Transparent, PLA Ecofil)

A successful combination of basic and decorative plastics. With all the positive practical characteristics of PLA, this filament allows you to achieve original visual effects with combinations of different fill shapes and wall thicknesses in the printed part.

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Nozzle temperature *: 180 – 220 ° С Table temperature: 20 – 70 ° С. Recommended print speed: 10 – 120mm / s

* For different manufacturers, the options for temperature conditions may vary within 5-10 ° С

 

eSilk-PLA Esun

Esun’s eSilk-PLA is a new plastic in the range of design materials. It was obtained by adding materials with a bright light effect to PLA. The finished product has a rich silk shine, brighter than regular PLA.

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eSilk is widely used in models with a large complex surface, as well as in practical products: parts of furniture fittings, elements of interior and exterior decorative finishes, in advertising structures and in design elements in other areas of engineering, representation and production.

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Physicochemical properties of eSilk-PLA are similar to PLA with good mechanical properties and high impact strength. It’s easy for them to type. It practically does not shrink. The plastic is environmentally friendly, odorless.

Elongation at break 300%
Colour Silver
Tensile strength 58 MPa
Flexural strength 75 MPa
Elastic modulus 4000 MPa
Impact strength according to Izod 4 kJ / m2
Melt index 2.5 g / 10 min (190 ° C / 2.16 kg)
Density 1.43 g / cm3
Softening point 67 ° C

Melting point 190 – 220 ° C

 

Recommended temperature of platform heating 0/60 – 80 ° C

 

ABS

(Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)

One of the first filaments available to a wide range of 3D printing enthusiasts. In domestic use, it is used less frequently than PLA due to the specific smell of the bar heated during printing, which requires drawing. What’s more, new research also shows that ABS fumes can have negative health effects.

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There is an opinion that ABS plastic is resistant to sunlight, but in 1998 in the United States there was a strange story with the recall of 8.8 million cars due to the photooxidative destruction of polymer release buttons of seat belts molded from ABS [7]… Perhaps, some changes have been made to the chemical formula since then, and modern plastics do not have such a problem, but we do not undertake to confirm or refute this statement. The fact is that, in general, tests are carried out using only UV lamps, and photo-oxidative destruction of polymers occurs with the simultaneous exposure to light and oxygen. But even a simple irradiation with a relatively powerful lamp organized a few years ago by a group of enthusiasts as part of an experiment comparing ABS and ASA lighting resistance showed that this, to put it mildly, is not an entirely accurate statement  [8] .

ABS plastic specifications

Glass transition temperature About 105 ° C
Flexural strength 41 MPa
Tensile strength 22 MPa
Tensile modulus 1627 Mpa
Relative extension 6%
Shrinkage on cooling Up to 0.8%
Density of material About 1.05 g / cm³

It should be borne in mind that the actual parameters of ABS plastic for 3D printing will depend on the manufacturer’s specifications.

One of the main disadvantages of ABS is its large shrinkage during and after printing, deformation during cooling. If the settings of the slicer and the printer are incorrect, delamination can occur and the part will simply tear apart in layers. The softening point of ABS plastic is in the range of 95-117 ° C. [nine]

 

Otherwise, ABS filament is still popular, perhaps out of habit, since, frankly, switching from a reliable material to a new one is always troublesome and not always advisable. In addition, it lends itself well to machining, grinding and painting.

ABS has poor adhesion. The selection of glue is an important choice. Perfectly glues with dichloroethane (EDC) and, as a rule, with acetone-based adhesives [10] . You can dissolve a certain amount of plastic in acetone and glue the parts with this solution. Someone mixes 646 solvent with the usual “super moment” and rejoices at the result for many years. Good reviews about AXTON cyanoacrylate adhesive and Cosmofen CA12

And the famous acetone bath gives ABS products a glossy “factory” look, albeit with some loss of fine detail of the model.

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The main segments of its application are “semi-industrial” and industrial production with good ventilation. Restriction on printing parts with high geometric accuracy due to high shrinkage. It requires at least a passive heat chamber and an all-metal extruder, which, in turn, is very demanding on its own quality and “does not like” a large number of retracts.

The table is about 80 ° C. Nozzle 240 ± 15 ° С (up to 260 ° С) All-metal thermal barrier, Passive. heat chamber.

 

ABS +

It is a modified version of the classic ABS plastic with increased hardness, rigidity, elasticity (2443Mpa), bending coefficient and tensile strength.

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This material does not corrode, retains its color for a long time, and is chemically neutral to oils, fats, lubricants, gasoline and hydrocarbons.

 

eABS MAX eSun

This is a new engineering plastic in the ESUN line, characterized by high fire resistance due to the presence of flame retardants in the composition, and resistance to low temperatures. It almost completely retains its properties at temperatures down to -20 ℃ and does not crumble.

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Compared to conventional ABS and ABS +, this plastic has a significantly higher impact resistance, it is harder and harder. In addition, eABS MAX is highly abrasive and does not shrink when printing. The material has good fluidity, it is easy to print, and the finished products have a smooth surface. Easily post-processed, for which you can use acetone. The plastic is highly oil and moisture resistant, less than 1% under normal conditions. A big plus is the non-toxicity of the material.

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Elongation at break thirty%
Tensile strength 45 MPa
Flexural strength 58 MPa
Elastic modulus 2400 MPa
Impact strength according to Izod 48 kJ / m2
Melt index 60 g / 10 min (220 ° C / 10 kg)
Density 1.05 g / cm3
Softening point 85 ° C

Nozzle size 0.2 / 0.25 / 0.3 mm (nozzle diameter should be greater than layer thickness)

Recommended heating pad temperature 90 – 110 ° C

Melting point 220 – 240 ° C

 

PETG

Polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG)

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This relatively new wear-resistant copolyester (combination) is a derivative of PET (bottle container) plastic, which is its copolymer. Its density is 1.27 g / cm3. This is more than PLA and about a fifth different from ABS. Rockwell hardness – R 106. For comparison, ABS has about R 110. Glass transition temperature is about 80 ° C. Chemically resistant, not susceptible to acids, alkalis and water. Flexible enough while maintaining strength. For example, PETG is perfect for quadcopter parts – the bumper made of it can effectively absorb shocks, remaining quite rigid and not collapsing even in the most serious accidents.

Meanwhile, from time to time you can come across opinions of practical users with stories about highly “hairy” printing and unregulated fluidity. Perhaps all many manufacturers have not yet debugged the technology, or the formula itself is unstable, or the ingredients fail …

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And this is what practitioners write about it. PETG is picky about settings. Make sure the temperatures of the hot parts in your printers are accurate. If not, calculate the margin of error on a few experimental prints to achieve good quality. After that, select the temperature modes for printing. Sometimes 2-3 degrees play a decisive role.

PETG does not like high speeds, both when printing and in retract – set no more than 15-30 mm / s. If you do not have an all-metal thermal barrier, do not raise the temperature of the nozzle more than 235-245 ° С, otherwise the fluoroplastic tube (PTFE) may melt already approaching 250 ° С, and if it is not of the same class (which is often found in Chinese products), then even earlier …

It is especially surprising that for PETG it is recommended to calibrate the printer in a special way. Not one sheet of paper, but three. It has been argued that if the extruder nozzle is close to the table or the previous layer, then a film will begin to form, and a cobweb will appear at the nozzle. You can set this additional gap using a slicer, but this is a long story. As a result, PETG’s good physicochemical properties pale in comparison to printing difficulties.

True, for some reason no one talks about the problems when printing with plastic from well-known manufacturers with a long-standing reputation. Perhaps the whole problem is in the workmanship?

PROPERTIES VALUE Units CHANGE
Physical
Density 1260 – 1280 kg / m ^ 3
Mechanical
Yield point 4.79e7 – 5.29e7 Pa
Tensile strength 6e7 – 6.6e7 Pa
Elongation 1.02 – 1.18 % Voltage
Hardness (Vickers) 1.41e8 – 1.56e8 Pa
Impact strength (no notch) 1.9e5 – 2e5 J / m ^ 2
Tensile strength 2.11e6 – 2.54e6 Pa / m ^ 0.5
Young’s modulus 2.01e9 – 2.11e9 Pa
Thermal
Maximum working temperature 51 – 64 ° C
The melting temperature 81 – 91 ° C
Electrical conductivity Insulator
Specific heat 1470 – 1530 J / kg ° C
Thermal expansion coefficient 0.00012 – 0.000124 Voltage / ° C
Sustainability
CO2 3.22 – 3.56 kg / kg
Recycling Yes

Recommended temperatures: table – 80 ° С, nozzle – 210-230 ° С

 

Nylon (Polyamide)

Nylon is a family of synthetic polyamides used primarily in the production of fibers. The two most common types of nylon are:

polyhexamethylene adipinamide (anid (USSR / Russia), nylon 66 (USA)), often referred to as nylon itself; poly-ε-caproamide (nylon (USSR / Russia), nylon 6 (USA)).

Nylon is a material with high wear resistance and heat resistance, it can be processed without problems, with an excellent slip coefficient (bushings can be printed) Excellent for printing gears and mechanisms. Plastic does not contain harmful impurities, does not lose geometry when heated.

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Nylon filaments are generally highly hygroscopic. Nylon can absorb up to 10% of its weight in water in just 24 hours! Therefore, they must be stored in sealed packaging with silicate gel. Dry before use.

With proper settings, nylon head prints easily and well. If the material is dried, the surface quality leaves a silky feel. When using quality nylon, the adhesion of the layers will be excellent and the prints will be flawless. High detail will be provided on both small and large models.

As a wear-resistant nylon, it is excellent for printing parts subject to constant friction, such as gears, and it also lends itself well to machining, drilling and threading.

When printing, use a build bed less than 90-100 ℃ heated, as nylon is sensitive to cooling too quickly and therefore warping. It is desirable to have a closed heat chamber.

Nylon plastics are high temperature filaments and require an all-metal hot end, as printing temperatures can be 240-260 ° C and higher. In terms of price, they are made of expensive plastics.

 

ePA-GF ESUN

This material consists of nylon with added fiberglass. Compared to conventional nylon, ePA-GF has significantly improved mechanical strength, stiffness, plastic deformation resistance, and heat resistance.

Increased fatigue strength (property of the material not to collapse over time under the influence of varying working loads).

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ASA

Copolymer of acrylic ether, styrene and acrylonitrile

ASA (Acrylo-Nitrile-Styrene-Acrylate) is an analogue of ABS that has increased UV and weather resistance, so ASA products do not yellow in the open even under the most stressful conditions. In addition, this plastic is virtually unaffected by lubricants, dilute acids and diesel fuel. The advantages of ASA plastic include its moisture-proof and water-repellent properties. Withstands short-term heating up to 100-110 ° С. It is interesting that ASA granules contain a transparent material, and the transparency is higher than that of SAN plastic. However, in the form of a thread from a dull milky color.

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Its main areas of application are automotive, various types of hobby modeling, technical details of devices used outdoors, small forms of landscape design, outdoor advertising.

Dissolves with acetone. According to one well-known blogger in narrow circles, if it were his will, he would switch from his beloved ABS to ASA without looking. But apparently the price does not start up. Possibly ASA, an undeservedly neglected filament.

Table 115-125 ° C. Nozzle – 245-265 ° C. We recommend: All-metal thermal barrier, Passive. heat chamber. Speed ​​30-40mm / sec

 

Polycarbonate

A group of thermoplastics, polyesters of carbonic acid and dihydric alcohols of general formula n. Aromatic polycarbonates are of the greatest industrial importance, primarily polycarbonate based on bisphenol A, due to the availability of bisphenol A, synthesized by condensation of phenol and acetone.

Thanks to the combination of high mechanical and optical properties, monolithic plastic is also used as a material in the manufacture of lenses, CDs, headlights, glasses and lighting products. It is widely known as “cellular polycarbonate” sheet product.

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PolyMax PC

Specially developed, high-tech material from PolyMaker. The filament is ideal for tackling the toughest engineering challenges. PolyMax PC is second to none in print, demanding maximum strength and durability.

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PolyMax PC is designed using Polymaker Nano-Reinforcement Technology to ensure maximum print quality and exceptional mechanical properties in the finished product. It is indeed one of the strongest plastics, with flexural strength comparable to CoPa.

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In comparison with PolyLite, PolyMax PC has incomparably greater toughness 25.1 ± 1.9 kJ / m 2 compared to 3.4 ± 0.1 kJ / m 2 .

PolyMax PC has the best impact toughness, and products made from it are characterized by incredible strength and durability, combined with high temperature resistance. The use of this filament provides high quality printing and the finished product has a smooth, slightly glossy finish.

Virtually odorless. Refractory, lightweight and economical to operate. Optimum filament performance ensures virtually zero clogging of the extruder and minimizes artifacts during printing.

It is recommended to print in a printer with a closed printing chamber with a hot table.

Specifications

 

Impact strength 25.1 ± 1.9 kJ / m2
Thread density 1.18 – 1.20 (g / cm3 @ 21.5˚C)
Elongation at break 12.2 ± 1.4%
Bending modulus 2044 ± 55 MPa
Tensile modulus 1879 ± 109 Mpa
Tensile strength 59.7 ± 1.8 MPa
Flexural strength 94.1 ± 0.9 MPa
Elastic modulus 2048 ± 66 MPa
Melt index 6-8 g / 10 min (260 ℃ 1.2 kg)
Glass transition temperature 113 ˚C
Softening point 117 ˚C

The recommended temperature for heating the platform is 90 – 105˚C. Nozzle temperature 250 – 270˚C. Recommended print speed 30 – 50 mm / s

 

PC-plastic Raise3D Premium

PC Raise3D Premium – polycarbonate, one of the most advanced industrial thermoplastics, designed for printing very durable and wear-resistant models. This plastic is characterized by high temperature resistance, impact resistance and rigidity. It is mainly used in the creation of models for the later stages of functional testing or for the production of finished parts such as components for electrical appliances, electrical assemblies, protective helmets, etc. High temperature resistance (up to 110 ° C) makes the PC from Raise3D Premium an ideal alternative to metals (for example, for placing parts under the hood of the car).

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The printing equipment must have a closed thermal chamber and a high-temperature extruder with an all-metal thermal barrier.

Specifications

Elongation at break 12.2 ± 1.4%
Impact strength 25.1 ± 1.9 kJ / sq. m. (Charpy)
Thread density 1.18 – 1.20 (g / cm3 at 21.5˚C)
Bending modulus 2044 ± 55 MPa
Tensile strength 59.7 ± 1.8 MPa (for XY), 29.1 ± 4.1 (for Z)
Flexural strength 94.1 ± 0.9 MPa
Elastic modulus 2048 ± 66 MPa (Jung)
Melt index 6 – 8 g / 10 min (at 260 C, 1.2 kg)
Glass transition temperature 113 ℃
Density 1.19-1.20 g / cm. cub. (at 21.5 ˚C)
Softening point 117 ℃ (according to Vika)
Ambient temperature 70-80 ˚C

Working table temperature 80-105˚C. Recommended nozzle temperature 250-270˚C Recommended print speed 60 mm / sec

 

Carbon  ePA-CF

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It belongs to the group of engineering high-temperature plastics.

Eco-friendly product based on nylon with 20% carbon fiber. The addition of carbon fibers reduces UV damage to the nylon backing.

The model comes with a smooth surface and a matte effect. No harsh odors are emitted when printing. Possesses high strength, rigidity and wear resistance. Suitable for 3D printing industrial parts used in the final product.

Printed models can withstand heat up to 160 ℃.

Compared to nylon, the material has a lower ratio of compression, shrinkage and, as a result, provides higher accuracy. Filament is non-flammable, flame resistance, complies with level: UL94-V2.

When printing with carbon, it is recommended to use stainless steel nozzles, which have less wear than bronze and brass nozzles.

A printer with a closed chamber and heated table is recommended for printing.

Specifications

Elongation at break 26%
Tensile strength 85 Mpa
Flexural strength 122 Mpa
Elastic modulus 5160 Mpa
Impact strength according to Izod 15.5 kJ / m2
Melt index 6 g / 10 min (250 ° C / 5 kg)
Density 1.24 g / cm3
Softening point 120 ° C

Melting temperature 240 – 260 ° С

Recommended heating pad temperature 80 – 90 ° C

 

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EPA-GF plastic prints excellently – the absence of geometric distortion and good surface quality give the model the appearance of a quality product. The included fiberglass reduces the percentage of shrinkage compared to pure nylon, so when printing large models, the likelihood of shrinkage and warping is much less. The thermal distortion is 120 ℃. This type of plastic is ideal for the production of gears, bearings, aircraft fenders, pumps, bicycle and automotive parts and other functional and heat-resistant plastic parts for the aerospace, automotive, mechanical engineering and chemical industries.

Specifications

Tensile strength 101 MPa
Flexural strength 160 MPa
Elastic modulus 4300 MPa
Impact strength according to Izod 8 kJ / m2
The melting temperature 240 – 260 ℃
Melt index 7 g / 10 min (250 ℃ / 5 kg)
Density 1.35 g / cm3
Softening point 120 ° C

Recommended table temperature 80-90 ℃

SBS

(styrene-butadiene-styrene)

SBS plastics are another relatively new thermoplastic material in the 3D printing filament market. Moderately elastic, safe material with excellent intercoat adhesion especially after processing in limonene [11] or solvent [12] . Parts made from this rod are flexible, resilient and do not break. It comes in a rich, vibrant and rich color palette.

 

* [11] – Limonene-D – 1-methyl-4-isopropenylcyclohexene-1, a hydrocarbon of the terpene group. Solvent for a range of plastics. It exists in the form of two optically active forms – enantiomers and as a racemic mixture. It is contained in many essential oils (in essential oils of citrus fruits up to 90% D-limonene) and in turpentine (4-6% dipentene in turpentine from Pinus silvestris).
[12] – Solvent is a mixture of light hydrocarbons released from oil or coal raw materials, a flammable liquid. It is a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons with a small content of naphthenes, paraffins and unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons. It is used for dissolving oils, bitumen, rubbers, urea and melamine formaldehyde oligomers, terephthalic acid polyesters, petroleum resins, polyesteramides and polyetherimides, melamine alkyd paints and varnishes, as well as in the printing process.

Easy to process and paint. It is characterized by low toxicity and shrinkage as well as high strength. SBS is safe for humans and neutral to water, which allows it to be made into tableware and dishes.

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When printing, it is worth considering the low intercoat adhesion, due to which skipping layers and delamination can occur. The relatively high extrusion and platform heating temperatures for plastics of the “popular” group introduce some restrictions on the practical application of this filament. For some printers, experimenting with temperatures around 250 ° C will cause the hot end to be repaired and the table recalibrated.

In addition, the “elasticity” of the yarn requires direct feed and high permeability of the filament path without excessive friction and bending. Otherwise, there is a high probability of overlaps, kinks and slipping of the bar into the free space of the extruder, followed by a stop of printing. You should use minimal retraction or disable it altogether if the geometry of the model allows it. Experienced users recommend setting the layer thickness equal to half the nozzle diameter. When it decreases, roughness will appear at the outer walls; when increasing, the layers may not be sintered.

Adhesion to the table is average, so it is worth using additional means of fixing the first layers on the working surface of the build platform.

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Distinctive features of SBS plastics include strength, ductility and heat resistance. Moreover, the modulus of elasticity is much lower than that of ABS, so the finished products are more flexible.

Specifications

The melting temperature 190-210 ° C
Softening point 76 ° C
Operating temperature -80 + 65 ° C
Hardness (Rockwell) R118
Elongation at break 250%
Flexural strength 36 MPa
Elongation at break > 260%.
Breaking strength 34 MPa
Tensile modulus 1.35 GPa
Flexural modulus 1.45 GPa
Glass transition temperature 95 ° C
Density 1.01 g / cm³
Print accuracy ± 0.4%
Shrinkage in the manufacture of products 0.2
Moisture absorption 0.07%

Print options. Nozzle diameter 0.3-0.8 mm. Extrusion temperature 220-240 ° C. Table temperature 70-90 ° C. Recommended airflow – 20%

 

SBS-glass (Glass)

(Styrene-butadiene copolymer)

Modification of the base SBS thermoplastic. The main advantage of SBS-Glass filaments is their transparency – about 93% light transmission. After treatment with solvent or limonene, they take the form of stained glass.

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Particularly interesting products are obtained when printing in the “vase” (vase), “spiral” modes. The highest model transparency after chemical treatment will be observed for models with a higher layer height; for example, for a nozzle of 1.5 mm, a layer thickness of 0.35 mm is sufficient. In the absence of a nozzle of the required diameter, the width of the extrusion can be increased by increasing the flow coefficient (flow, extrusion multiplier), a thick wall may be needed to simulate a glass bottle.

For reliable printing, it is recommended to set a small retraction value: for a direct extruder 0.5 mm, for bowden no more than 1 mm. The airflow is minimal. There is a high degree of adhesion to clean glass at temperatures of 50-80 ° C.

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The models are chemically treated with a solvent (nefras-A), xylene or d-limonene. Products with a wall thickness of 1 mm or more can be processed by immersion in a solvent. Immediately after the contact of the solvent with the material, it is necessary to begin drying the model with a household or building hair dryer.

The result of such processing will be products that look very much like glass containers, but at the same time they are strong, resilient and completely safe.

Specifications

Flexural modulus 1.5 GPa
Shrinkage 0.2-1.1%
Hygroscopicity extremely low – 0.06%

Recommended print settings. Nozzle 225-240 ° C. Table 50-80 ° C. Print speed up to 100 mm / s

 

PEEK

Polyetheretherketone )

A modern semi-crystalline material that provides a unique combination of mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance. PEEK parts can be irradiated with X-rays and gamma rays. The infusibility of this filament makes it impossible to print on most consumer 3D printers.

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Very durable and high temperature resistant plastic. It is practically not used in household printing, due to the high requirements for the temperatures of the nozzle and the printer table. Requires a heat chamber, preferably active. Interlaminar adhesion is good, but adhesion to the build platform is poor, so additional measures are required to fix the first layers.

It is used for printing functional prototypes of products experiencing high physical and mechanical stress and operating at elevated temperatures. Due to its unique properties, it has the same unique price – a very expensive filament.

 

ePEEK Pro Esun

Heat-resistant semi-crystalline polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties. It retains high wear resistance at temperatures up to 250 ° С, has a high level of fire resistance and can withstand heating up to 315 ° С for a short time. ePEEK is a refractory material with a melting point of 152 ° C.

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The material is resistant to chemical attack, increased radiation and hydrolysis. Differs in high strength and fatigue strength at alternating stress, comparable to alloy materials. High intercoat adhesion and viscosity, as well as strength, stiffness and low coefficient of friction make it possible to use plastic for the manufacture of functional parts in various industrial areas.

ePEEK is considered one of the most efficient engineering thermoplastics and is widely used in aerospace, military, oil and gas, automotive and mechanical engineering, nuclear power, medical equipment, electronic semiconductors, and more.

Specifications

Tensile modulus 3500 Mpa
Tensile strength 100 Mpa
Flexural strength 170 Mpa
Elastic modulus 3500 MPa
Impact strength according to Izod 7 kJ / m2
The melting temperature 380 – 410 ° C
Melt index 10 (380 ° C / 5kg)
Density 1.3 g / cm, cube
Minimum wall thickness 1 mm
Print accuracy ± 3%
Shrinkage in the manufacture of products one%
Moisture absorption 0.4%
Softening point 152 ° C

Printing parameters: Extrusion temperature 360-410 ° C. Table temperature 120-180 ° C. Airflow is undesirable.

 

Basic, elastic

 

Polyurethanes are different. Some can be very soft, somewhat resembling silicone, while others are very hard – similar to SBS.

What is interesting about thermoplastic polyurethanes? They are elastomers with excellent intercoat adhesion, weather resistance and high wear resistance. Typical elastomers are various rubbers and rubbers.

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However, printing with any “rubber-like” elastic filaments requires modification of the basic equipment or the use of specialized equipment. At least a high-quality adapted direct extruder.

It should be understood that materials with a high coefficient of elongation are difficult to control in mechanical movements. Due to its susceptibility to loads, such filament is difficult to press firmly against the drive gear and at the same time to avoid slipping or biting, that is, the pressing force of the idle nip roller is limited.

You also need an uncompromising filament path from the drive, pushing gear to the hot zone of the hot end, since at every convenient opportunity, the “rubber thread” strives to slip into any free space or hole. Many specialized flexible printing systems use an extruder with two synchronized drive gears to confidently push the Flex filament.

Often TPE, TPU and other filaments with similar physico-chemical characteristics are defined by manufacturers under the Flexible group.

TPE

(thermoplastic polyester elastomers)

Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) are raw materials. TPE is not a single unit, like silicone, but consists of a whole group of polymers. TPE does not require vulcanization, it has a low density (soft to the touch), elastic, ductile, and has a high tensile strength.

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Resistant to deformation and various environmental influences (temperature and humidity). Nevertheless, elastic deformation of TPE rather quickly turns into irreversible plastic, and TPU recovers in size completely.

 

eLastic-plastic ESUN

ESUN eLastic is a flexible, strong, resilient material similar to silicone. The TPE structure ensures high elasticity of the finished product. The material is resistant to low temperatures.

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Suitable for printing flexible and soft items. Used for making everyday items, shoes, covers, buttons, masks, decor, etc.

It is better to print at low speeds, about 15-30 mm / s, so that the bar is not “chewed” by the feed mechanism. Recommended for direct-fed printers. Cold table printing is possible.

Specifications

Elongation at break 420%
Tensile strength 32 MPa
The melting temperature 210 – 230 ° C
Density 1.14 g / cm3

 

TPU

(urethane TPE)

TPU is a modern high-temperature material of a group of polymers, thermoplastic polyurethane. A material that combines the strength of plastic and the flexibility of silicone, made on the basis of polyesters – urethane bonds connect organic elements. The elasticity of printed products is the main property that determines the use of this plastic.

 

eTPU-95A Esun

Elastic plastic with a high coefficient of elasticity, which significantly reduces the rate of deformation of the material. It has a high moisture resistance and hydrolytic resistance, so products made of it can be safely exposed to water.

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Esun’s eTPU-95A features high strength, durability and UV resistance, which makes it suitable for functional models. In addition, the plastic is highly transparent. The finished products have a pleasant-to-touch surface.

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The main areas of application include the manufacture of automotive parts, household appliances, medical supplies, soles, smartphone cases, bracelets and other products requiring high flexibility and strength.

Specifications

The melting temperature 210 – 240 ° C
Melt index 8.4 g / 10 min (190 ° C / 2.16 kg)
Density 1.43 g / cm3
Recommended heating pad temperature 0 ° C

The eTPU-95A is compatible with almost all 3D printers as it does not require a heated table. The price is above average.

 

Subsidiary

 

The main purpose of these filaments is support. Their physical and chemical properties, as well as temperature conditions of printing are different from the base material of the product, which makes it easy to separate the “wheat from the chaff” after its completion either mechanically or chemically. In other words, after printing, these filaments can be dissolved in various liquids.

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Another role of auxiliary materials has recently become the manufacture of models of objects, which in the future will have to be embodied from another material by casting. That is, we are talking about burn-out, or more correctly, lost-wax, threads for 3D printing. As a rule, they are created on the basis of wax or other low-temperature ingredients.

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And a completely unusual purpose of auxiliary filaments was the technical task of cleaning and cleaning the hot zones of the extruders and the filament path. The old method with heating the filament in the hot area of ​​the extruder, its subsequent cooling and abrupt pulling out of the extruder along with dirt and plugs was recognized by experts as barbaric. In return, they came up with another one. About him below.

Soluble (Soluble)

 

HIPS

(High-impact Polystyrene, high impact polystyrene)

High impact polystyrene (HPS) – a copolymer of styrene with butadiene rubber – is widely used in industry for the production of housings for electronic devices, various household products, building materials, disposable tableware, toys, medical instruments, etc.

Since its widespread adoption in the early 1950s, this plastic has become one of the most popular polymers in the world due to its low cost and all kinds of combinations with other plastics and elastomers.

It is generally accepted that polystyrene has recently appeared in 3D printing, but this is not true, since one of the popular copolymers of polystyrene is ABS plastic.

HIPS belongs to the category of thermoplastic polymers. During its production, polybutadiene is added to the main raw material based on polystyrene, as a result of which the filament acquires the elasticity of rubber with high strength properties.

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HIPS material is opaque, hard, hard, resistant to impact, frost and temperature extremes. It dissolves in limonene, a natural solvent extracted from citrus fruits, and can therefore be used to create support structures that do not have to be removed mechanically.

The advantage of HIPS over ABS plastic is its excellent electrical insulation properties, while HIPS has very similar characteristics to ABS in terms of impact resistance and stiffness. HIPS, like ABS, is very easy to print, but shrinkage must be considered.

Products made of HIPS can be sanded, primed and painted in any color. However, despite some similarities with the properties of ABS, HIPS is still significantly different from it.

Compared to PVA as a supporting material, HIPS is cheaper, does not react to moisture and water. When used with ABS, it is worth making sure that the manufacturer of the latter has not added too much polystyrene to its composition (the melting point of such impure ABS is lower), otherwise the part will dissolve along with the supports in limonene.

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HIPS may contain a small amount of residual styrene monomer. Styrene is highly toxic and can be released as vapor when the HIPS is heated. We recommend that you print in a well-ventilated area.

HIPS products have a wide operating temperature range from –40 to + 70 ° С. Printing with HIPS material is very similar to printing with ABS plastic.

HIPS Specifications *

Extrusion temperature 230-240 ° C
Flexural strength 33 Mpa
Tensile strength 62 Mpa
Flexural modulus 2280 MPa
Elongation at break 65%
Shrinkage on cooling 0.8%
Density of material About 1.05 g / cm³

Nozzle temperature 220-240 ° C. The working table temperature is about 80-100 ° C.

* Actual specifications may vary by manufacturer

 

PVA

(polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl alcohol)

Two types of material can be hidden under the abbreviation PVA (PVA): polyvinyl acetate (PolyvinylAcetate, PVAc) and polyvinyl alcohol (PolyvinylAlcohol, PVAl). According to the chemical formula, they are quite similar, only there are no acetate groups in polyvinyl alcohol, and their properties also coincide – in many ways, but not in all. Unfortunately, sellers often just list PVA without making a distinction.

PVA is produced from various raw materials, including ethylene gas (released during the ripening of some fruits and vegetables), ethyl alcohol (the same drinking alcohol) and petroleum products, but in any case it is non-toxic in its finished form and does not pose a health hazard.

Polyvinyl alcohol PVAl requires an operating temperature of about 180-200 ° C, its further increase is undesirable – pyrolysis (thermal decomposition) may begin. In addition, the material is very hygroscopic, it actively absorbs moisture from the air, which creates problems during storage and printing, especially if the filament diameter is 1.75 mm

It is recommended to store PVA plastic in a vacuum dry package and, if necessary, dry it before use. Typically, standard coils take 6-8 hours to dry at 60-80 ° C. Exceeding the drying temperature will degrade the plastic.

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At low humidity, plastic has a high tensile strength. With increasing humidity, strength decreases, but elasticity increases. The extrusion temperature is 160-175 ° C. Raising the print temperature is not desirable.

General characteristics of the material: biodegradable, soluble in water at room temperature, non-toxic, does not cause skin irritation. PVA, when printed as supports, is compatible with many filaments, while it easily separates from the base material when it cools, and heating water to 60 ° C will significantly accelerate its dissolution.

Recommended printing temperature 170-190 ° C

Physical and mechanical characteristics of PVA plastic:

Density, g / cm3 1.25 – 1.36
Melting point, ° С 190 – 200
Pour point, ° С 45 – 55
Specific heat, J / K 0,4
Viscosity, mPa 22.0 – 30.0
Degree of polymerization 1680 – 1880
Molecular mass 73900 – 82700

 

 

ePVA +

Improved PVA plastic developed by eSun.

With properties similar to PVA, ePVA + has several benefits. This material is twice as fast as PVA dissolves in water. ePVA + is less susceptible to hygroscopicity and therefore provides more stable printing.

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Unfortunately, it has a very high cost. But if applied rationally, then the material is simply irreplaceable to obtain flat overhanging areas.

Specifications:

Density of material 1.14 g / cm3
Tensile strength 26 MPa
Elongation at break 190%

Print parameters: Nozzle temperature range 190-210 ° C Table temperature 60-80 ° C

 

Castable

PolyCast

PolyMaker company is widely known to domestic amateurs and professionals of 3D FDM printing for its high-quality resins and plastics.

PolyCast is a high-tech 3D printing material with very low ash content. Ideal for the consciousness of master models, greatly simplifying the casting process. In the production of filament, Layer-Free technologies are used, which allows you to make the surface of the printed model smooth, without roughness, for which ethyl alcohol vapors are used.

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Filament is very practical and can be printed on virtually any 3D printer that maintains a nozzle temperature of 190˚C – 220˚C

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PolyCast does not absorb moisture and has a very low ash content, i.e., after burning out the plastic, there is practically no ash left, which makes it possible to cast high-quality models

After printing, the model can be additionally treated with ethyl alcohol vapor to reduce the layering of the surfaces. The use of this filament allows you to reduce the time and cost of casting models both in the production process and in amateur work. Due to its technical parameters, it is well suited for the manufacture of complex shapes. Plastic perfectly tolerates long-term storage.

High-quality winding of the filament on the spool ensures smooth feeding into the press

The use of Ash-Free technology in the production of this yarn allows achieving a uniquely low ash content, i.e. during firing, the filament perfectly burns out evenly, without residue, which ensures that the finished cast model is free from defects.

Specifications

Build Tak pad surface Yes
Impact strength 9.6 ± 0.9 kJ / m2
Material type Castable
Thread density 1.1 (g / cm3 @ 21.5˚C)
Colour Natural
Elongation at break 5.8 ± 0.9%
Tensile strength 37.5 ± 1.7 MPa
Flexural strength 60.2 ± 1.6 MPa
Elastic modulus 1745 ± 151MPa
Melt index 6.6 – 6.7 g / 10 min (260 ℃ 1.2 kg)
Glass transition temperature 70 ˚C
Softening point 67 ˚C

Printing temperature 190˚C – 220˚C. The recommended temperature for heating the site is 25˚C – 70˚C. Recommended print speed 40mm / s – 60mm / s

Cleaning

Printer Cleaning Filament

In 2014, eSun introduced an unusual filament. This specially developed nylon-based plastic is designed to remove carbon deposits, old filament residues and other foreign bodies from the hot zone of the extruder and the filament path. The composition of the bar is unknown, at least the company says nothing about it. Only the density of the thread is known, which is 0.95 g / cm 3

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The application is quite simple, heat the extruder to 150 – 220 (max – 260C) degrees, insert the filament and wait until it comes out through the nozzle with the remains of dirt and hardened plastic.

The material is supplied in a skein of 1.75 mm and weighing 100 g

 

Specialized, decorative

 

You can talk endlessly about decorative filaments. If we take the great variety of developed, developed and already obsolete thermoplastics with various kinds of fillers and clarifiers, and multiply by the number of manufacturers, and then multiply by the number of names of often similar filaments, then the number can come out with three or more zeros at the end. We will not be able to describe all of them, so we will leave the possibility of fucking future experiments, and focus on the most popular and demanded ones today.

 

Fluorescent or luminescent

These plastics glow in the dark. True, for this they must be in the light for some time in advance – to recharge. To the delight of children and as a means of control and safety. After all, you can print from them not only funny entertaining toys, bracelets, “ears”, key rings and “boomboxes”, but also cat and dog collars, reflectors, restrictive signs and other useful devices that will show you the way in the dark or save you from collisions.

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It should be noted that there are two types of “luminous” filaments. Fluorescent, which needs to accumulate light energy to glow in the dark, and luminescent, which only exhibits its light properties under ultraviolet rays. In the latter, under normal lighting conditions, the color gamut is preserved, while in the former it appears only in the dark.

 

LUMIFLEX green

Rubber-like thermoplastics based on styrene-butadiene rubber

Produced by Filamentarno, this filament contains a phosphor and can glow for a long time in the dark after being under daylight or artificial light. In the light, the color of the plastic approaches a milky white, whitish shade. Its color scheme appears only in the dark, after being under a UV lamp.

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Distinctive features of this series from polymers with similar characteristics – it does not absorb moisture and does not require drying before printing, has excellent interlayer adhesion and is perfectly fixed on the desktop. It is also worth noting the possibility of fast printing (100mm / s and higher), available post-printing processing of the part with solvent, xylene or limonene with further coloring.

Specifications

Heat resistance (min / max) -80 ° C / + 80 ° C
Shore A hardness 60

Recommended print settings. Nozzle 240-255 ° C. Table 0-60 ° C. Model blowing 0-100%. Print speed up to 160 mm / s. Retract 0-1 mm. Plastic flow (Flow) 105-115%. Min. nozzle diameter from 0.4 mm. Min. layer height 0.2 mm

 

FDplast “Sword of the Jedi”

(Polylactide)

FDplast, a Russian manufacturer of filaments for FDM printing, first introduced the Jedi Sword luminescent PLA plastic in 2016. Since then, this “glowing plastic” has been very popular, especially in the run-up to the holidays, and is one of the most spectacular materials for 3D printing. It contains a phosphor – a pigment that provides luminosity in the dark.

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This rod is non-toxic, non-radioactive and completely safe for humans. Its PLA base ensures trouble-free printing on healthy equipment at the manufacturer’s recommended settings.

Specifications

Density 1.25 g / cm³
Warm. Products 55 ° C

Recommended print settings. Nozzle 190 – 225 ° C. Table 40 ° C. Print speed 25-40 mm / s.

 

 

Textured:

Silk, “wooden”, clay and ceramics, marble,
stone, sand, metal

“Wood”

LAYWOO-D 3 (Laywood)

In 2012, inventor Kai Party developed an FDM filament that can be wood-printed on RepRap 3D printers. Since then, this original decorative plastic has been in steady demand among a large number of hobby makers.

Laywood is a wood-polymer composite (also called WPC) made up of 40% recycled wood particles and a safe resin binder, and 3D printed objects look amazingly realistic – they even have “annual rings” that can be seen on any log.

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The material has similar thermal stability to PLA and can be printed with extrusion temperatures of 175 ° C – 245 ° C. After printing, the product looks like wood, and even has a corresponding smell – it smells like fresh sawdust. And if you vary the temperature of the hot end from layer to layer, you can achieve the effect of the presence of annual rings in the texture. For example, at 180 ° C the layers will have a lighter shade, and at 245 ° C they will become darker.

Laywood is non-toxic, which makes it possible to use products made from it as souvenirs, decorative, dining and play products. Post-processing of finished models is also the same as working with regular wood – they can be sawed, drilled, cut, sanded and painted.

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In addition to the above advantages, Laywood boasts almost zero shrinkage. However, in order to avoid clogging the hot end, it is not recommended to use small nozzle diameters – 0.6-0.8 mm or more are quite suitable.

When gluing parts, it is possible to use wood adhesives or use compounds suitable for PLA.

Basic bar thickness 3 mm. There is a version of the 1.75mm standard

Laywoo-D3 is produced by the German company RepRap GmbH under the license of the inventor Kai Parthy, similar in all respects plastics, but under different trademarks are manufactured and sold by many companies around the world.

Attention! For printing temperatures above 235-245 ° C, it is recommended to use only extruders with an all-metal thermal barrier. Increase printing speed and reduce the number of retracts.

Table 50-60 ° C or without heating. Nozzle 175-245 ° C (recommended range 185-230 ° C)

 

Wood eSun

All characteristics as the previous filament only from a well-known manufacturer.

The color of the plastic in the reel is brown. Supplied with thread diameters of 3 and 1.75 mm.

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Specifications

Density, g / cm³ 0.6-0.8
Deformation temperature, ° С 45
Tensile strength, MPa 67
Elongation at break,% 4
Flexural strength, MPa 111
Flexural modulus, MPa 4323
Impact strength according to Izod (ISO180), kJ / m2 5.9
Melt flow index, g / 10 min 15 (190 ° C / 2.16 kg)

Extrusion temperature 190-220 ° C. Table heating temperature 0/60 ° С.

Filament feed speed 30-60 mm / s

“Sand”

Laybrick

Laybrick is another development from Kai Parthy, the creator of the acclaimed Laywoo-D3 wood composite.

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He managed to create a very natural sandstone imitation. Like Laywoo-D3, the material is very unpretentious and does not require high extrusion temperatures or platform heating. Laybrick shrinkage is also minimal, which avoids deformations during cooling. Crushed chalk is used as a filler.

An interesting quality of Laybrick is the change in texture at different printing temperatures. The temperature range for printing can be 45 degrees from 165 ° C to 210 ° C.

Smoother and smoother surfaces of the model are obtained at low temperatures from 165 ° C to 195 ° C, and when they are raised to the maximum possible values, they become more textured, acquiring a visual similarity to natural sandstone. Using a layer-by-layer dynamic change in print temperatures will help achieve unusual effects with transitions from smooth surfaces to rougher ones.

When printing at high temperature conditions, it is recommended to use airflow. Laybrick hardens for a rather long time, so you can remove the model from the table no earlier than two or three hours after printing. Cooling down time varies with printing temperature.

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Laybrick is great for small sculptural forms, souvenirs, landscaping layouts and architectural projects.

Printed products are easy to machine and decorate. The paint adheres very well to this material. It contains natural mineral materials (chalk and copolyester). Laybrick products are resistant to temperatures up to 70 ° C. The material is non-toxic and does not pose a health hazard. Supplied with thread diameters of 3mm and 1.75mm.

We recommend printing in layers of 0.1 – 0.4 mm. You don’t need to heat the table. Nozzle 165-210 ° C

Attention. Care should be taken when handling consumables due to the high fragility of the thread.

 

PRO CERAMO-TEX (white)

CERAMO-TEX PRO series plastic based on SAN from Filamentarno! Is perhaps a completely unusual bar in terms of its properties, which has no analogues on the market! The printed surface made of this polymer has a uniform stable natural texture that hides printing flaws. In most cases, printouts from CERAMO-TEX do not need to be processed.

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Does not absorb moisture during storage. Excellent intercoat print adhesion and minimal shrinkage. Easy to sand. Suitable for printing final products that do not require post-processing, including large-sized ones.

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When printing at high temperatures (240-250C), with a reduced supply of plastic, you can get products much lighter than water (up to 0.55 g / cm3), even at 100% filling. Such properties of the final products are achieved due to the fact that CERAMO-TEX plastic foams when heated in the hot end of the extruder.

Heat resistance of CERAMO-TEX plastic products up to 102 ° С

Recommended print settings. Nozzle 230-260 ° C. Table 90-110 ° C. Model airflow 0-20%. Print speed up to 100 mm / s. Retract: 1-3 mm (direct); 3-5 mm (bowden).

Plastic feed (Flow) 50-80%. Min. nozzle diameter from 0.25 mm. Min. layer height 0.15 mm Temperature resistance (min / max) up to + 102 ° С

“Marble”

In 2015, Spеtrum Filament is a Polish trade mark, which, perhaps, was one of the first to offer admirers of additive technologies a wide variety of interesting filaments. She was recently able to surprise everyone by releasing completely unique material. It is manufactured on the basis of PLA.

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“Consumables” with the name “antique composite” made a lot of noise among lovers of small sculptural forms a few years ago. Still, they have the opportunity to obtain products that are outwardly indistinguishable from some types of this noble stone without complicated post-processing procedures.

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However, the presence of coarse additives tends to impose limitations on nozzle size, print speed, and flow settings.

eMarble Esun

Esun’s eMarble plastic is a new PLA-based design material for 3D printing. It is compatible with any FDM printers and 3D pens as it does not require a heated table. The finished products have a beautiful marble texture.

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In addition, the filament has the best PLA properties: good strength, low shrinkage, and easy to print. eMarble is made from organic plant materials, is biodegradable and virtually odorless.

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Perfect for making souvenirs, figurines, decor items with imitation of a marble surface.

Specifications

Elongation at break 6%
Material type PLA
Tensile strength 53 Mpa
Tensile strength 60 Mpa
Density 1.24 g / cm3
Softening point 67 ° C

The recommended temperature for heating the platform is 0 / 60-80 ° C. Nozzle temperature 190-220 ° C.

 

“Metal”

According to their composition, decorative plastics “like metal” are divided into two groups.

The first is plastics with the addition of metal powder. These plastics mimic metal very well in weight and appearance, but usually require post processing and polishing after printing. Due to the high fluidity to such plastics, it can be difficult to find the right settings for successful printing. In addition, the presence of tiny metal particles negatively affects the durability of printer parts.

The second group has an external resemblance to metal due to pigments matched to the metallic color and luster. They are lighter than the representatives of the first group, but do not require post-processing and print without any problems.

 

Bronze eSun

It should be noted that Shenzhen ESun Industrial Co. Ltd was founded in 2002 and has been active in the research, development and industrial production of biodegradable polymers such as PLA and PCL.

Since 2007, eSun has been successfully developing the production of consumables for additive manufacturing devices, including for FDM printing: basic PLA, ABS and specific – HIPS, PETG, PVA, materials based on nylon, polycarbonate and many others. It has branches in Europe and the USA.

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ESun founded PKU-HUST, the Shenzhen and Hong Kong Research Institute and eSun Biological High Molecular Materials Research Center. These organizations actively cooperate with Peking University and Wuhan University. The results of their research are recognized not only in China, but also in other countries.

Decorative plastic Bronze from the Chinese company eSun is created on the basis of PLA, belongs to the second type of decorative filaments and has a shade reminiscent of bronze.

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The best part is that once printed, it doesn’t require any post-processing! It doesn’t need to be polished or sanded. The product is immediately ready for use. But it should be borne in mind that the material is very fluid and sags are possible with awnings. Otherwise, no print settings are required.

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The material is not cheap – a pound costs more than 2,000 rubles. If you try to sand this thermoplastic, the effect of the bronze metal is lost. Perhaps the most attractive characteristic of this filament is its weight – it is very close to natural parameters. Therefore, busts and small sculptural forms in his performance will be very convincing.

Specifications

Elongation at break 16%
Tensile strength 66 MPa
Flexural strength 106 MPa
Elastic modulus 4442 MPa
Impact strength according to Izod 4 kJ / m2
The melting temperature 180 – 210 ℃
Melt index 62 g / 10 min (190 ° C / 2.16 kg)
Site heating temperature 25-70 ℃
Density 1.27 g / cm3
Softening point 50 ° C

Recommended temperature for heating pad 0 / 60-80 ° C

The recommended temperature of the nozzle is 200 ℃, the temperature of the table is 60 ℃.

eCopper

Decorative plastic is a PLA-based compound filled with the smallest particles of copper. Perhaps that is why the bar is very fragile, but with not strong bends it remembers its shape like a wire. Has a shade reminiscent of old rubbed copper (not to be confused with brass).

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Weighs significantly heavier than regular PLA. And if you make a small cut, but you can notice blotches of metal on the highlights, so to give the product the look of natural metal, it needs to be lightly sanded with a fine metal brush, and it is better to polish it. Then he will really play in the light.

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Printing does not cause any particular problems, no surprises were found. And thanks to the filler, the shrinkage of this modified PLA is completely minimal. eCopper, most likely, will be of interest to manufacturers of key rings and realistic products stylized “like metal” with subsequent additional processing by abrasives. The cost of a plastic coil is approaching the cost of real copper – more than 4000 per 1 kg.

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Specifications

Tensile strength 40 MPa
Flexural strength 64 MPa
Elastic modulus 4954 MPa
Impact strength according to Izod 4 kJ / m2
The melting temperature 200 – 220 ℃
Melt index 20 g / 10 min (190 ° C / 2.16 kg)
Site heating temperature 25-70 ℃
Density 2.46 g / cm cube
Softening point 52

The recommended temperature for heating the platform is 0 / 60-80 ° C. Nozzle temperature – 210, table – 50.

 

eAfill ESUN

Many cosplayers, without imitators of metal parts, will never build an exact copy of their favorite costume of their favorite hero.

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Of course, you can arm yourself with a primer, sandpaper and cans of paint, having prepared a gas mask in advance, but there is a more elegant solution. This is a plastic with the addition of metallic aluminum powder from the leading manufacturer of filaments for FDM 3D printing, the Chinese company eSun.

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The original name eAfill has a grayish, matte color without polishing. However, if you scrape off the thread, you can immediately see the familiar glint of metal in the glare.

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The eAfill is heavier than the corresponding ABS or PLA resins, but is slightly lighter than the copper eCopper. And this is understandable. The specific gravity of aluminum is almost three times less than the specific gravity of copper.

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The parameters for printing parts on a photo made of eALfill plastic are as follows: nozzle temperature – 210; table temperature – 50 (you can not heat at all), working layer 0.18 mm.

To “open” the filling of the bar, the part after printing needs to be lightly polished with a fine metal brush or medium-sized sandpaper.

After polishing, a beautiful light metallic luster is obtained.

Metal-filled plastics are, of course, intended purely for decorative use. While some users mistakenly believe that metal powder can add strength to the finished part, this is not the case.

Plastic is printed very simply – no surprises or lengthy adjustments occur when the equipment is working correctly.

This filament is ideal for printing custom key rings and realistic metal look. In reality, it is not always possible to paint the plastic beautifully and realistically. And castings with metal powders are usually justified only with a large circulation.

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Moreover, paint has an unpleasant property to wear off or flake off over time (especially if it is a small keychain that hangs on keys or a backpack), and rubbing and scratches only give a keyring made of such plastic a more vintage look.

Technical specifications

Tensile strength 45 MPa
Elongation at break 5%
Flexural strength 74 MPa
Elastic modulus 4885 MPa
Impact strength according to Izod 4 kJ / m2
The melting temperature 200 – 220 ℃
Melt index 8 g / 10 min (190 ° C / 2.16 kg)
Density 1.48 g / cm3
Softening point 52 ° C

 

E-steel ESUN

Unusual representative of a specialized design group for 3D plastics with a content of steel metal powder. Used for artwork to simulate the metallic sheen and tactile feel of a metallic surface.

Biodegradable (excluding additives), low shrinkage. Has a beautiful metallic texture on the surface. To create a metallic effect, polish with a wire brush after printing. Durability is not his strongest point.

The E-steel from ESUN, like the Bronze, is interesting for decorative applications. These can be prototypes of metal fittings. For example, artistic replicas of copper, bronze and aluminum utensils, small sculptures, metal-like finishes, decorative items, toys with a metallic sheen, and other objects and prototypes of metal parts.

Printing features: It is recommended to print on printers with a heated table for better adhesion of the model. The nozzle needs to be cleaned periodically. The number of retracts should be limited.

Specifications

Elongation at break 5%
Colour Silver
Tensile strength 45 MPa
Flexural strength 63 MPa
Elastic modulus 4452 Mpa
Impact strength according to Izod 5 kJ / m2
Melt index 14 g / 10 min (190 ° C / 2.16 kg)
Density 2.46 g / cm cube
Softening point 52 ° C

Melting point 200 – 220 ℃

Heating platform temperature 25-70 ° C

Recommended temperature for heating pad 0 / 60-80 ° C

 

Packaging and storage

 

All 3D printed plastics come in filament, typically 2.85 mm or 1.75 mm thick, either in skeins or spools. Packaged in sealed bags with a silicate gel inside to absorb excess moisture.

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ESUN eBox is a smart plastic dryer . Its purpose is to maintain the set temperature, dry and protect the plastic from dust and moisture. But besides that, she knows how to weigh the coil and show how many grams of plastic you have left.

Special devices for drying plastics are commercially available. In practice, many people dry the filament in a household oven, and in the winter season they practice a central heating battery as a heating element. Someone adapted devices for drying fruits for these purposes, and someone developed and built their own design from improvised parts.

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Wanhao BOX-2 is a “caring” box for your filament with 4 channels for feeding plastic. On the side there is a hydrometer, scales, drying, timer and “smart backlight” with an informative touch screen. Reliable fireproof metal housing. It can accommodate one coil up to 3 kg.

However, it’s worth noting that the right storage conditions provide significant savings, especially if you frequently print with expensive plastics. It’s no secret that the filament picks up moisture over time, degrades and becomes unsuitable for high-quality printing. It’s good if you noticed the ill-fated air bubbles from boiling moisture when printing the first layers. And it is very offensive when, after many hours of work, it suddenly turns out that adhesion began to disappear, and extrusion tends to zero. As you know, a miser pays twice. Purchase a specialized device for storing and preparing plastics for printing and you can be sure that one of the many necessary parameters for successful printing is certainly met. In addition, such a smart device will help you easily determine the remaining weight of the filament and promptly decide whether it is necessary to purchase it and whether its residues are sufficient to print the part you need. Pay attention toESUN eBox , Wanhao Box2 , Polymaker Polybox II .

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Polymaker Polybox II is another 3D printing filament storage device designed to provide an optimal environment. PolyBox ™ is compatible with all 3D printers and can hold two 1kg spools or one 3kg spool

 

* * *

 

The additive printing materials industry is gaining momentum. New materials with unusual and special properties appear on the market every year. It is worth noting that such major chemical concerns as German BASF, Japanese Mitsubishi Chemical, American DuPont and others have joined in the development of new materials for 3D printing. First of all, this suggests that these companies consider the 3D printing market promising and are ready to invest funds and efforts in the development of new and improvement of existing materials for 3D printing. At the dawn of its existence, users of 3D printers were significantly limited in the choice of available materials, now the range presented is much larger, and the capabilities of the equipment itself to work with materials such as high-temperature PEEK, which are difficult for 3D printing, have grown. However, it cannot be said that the existing materials fully satisfy user demand, and also meet all the tasks that buyers set for 3D equipment. In this article, we did not touch on the topic of promising developments of materials for 3D printing, which are already known today or that are in the stage of tests or trials, but focused on materials that are already available on the market and are widely used by users around the world. In the future, we plan to release a separate review on new products in the desktop FDM 3D printing market and talk about various innovations in this area. In this article, we did not touch on the topic of promising developments of materials for 3D printing, which are already known today or that are in the stage of tests or trials, but focused on materials that are already available on the market and are widely used by users around the world. In the future, we plan to release a separate review on new products in the desktop FDM 3D printing market and talk about various innovations in this area. In this article, we did not touch on the topic of promising developments of materials for 3D printing, which are already known today or that are in the stage of tests or trials, but focused on materials that are already available on the market and are widely used by users around the world. In the future, we plan to release a separate review on new products in the desktop FDM 3D printing market and talk about various innovations in this area.

 

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